Abaqondisi-mthetho ka-China. Zonke Isitshayina abaqondisi-mthetho kwi-intanethi.


Petitioning (Sasetshayina)


Petitioning yindlela yolawulo lwendlela uxoxwe izikhalazo nembambano grievances ukusuka abantu kuzo Abantu ke Republic of China. Petitioners abo luyafuneka ubulungisa ingaba kufika yamen ye-Khawunti umantyi okanye igosa eliphezulu kwaye wambetha a drum ukuba ilizwi zabo grievances. Njengoko enjalo, wonke ezisemthethweni kwinkundla waba nicinge ukuba abe equipped nge drum kuba oku sole injongo Ngamanye amaxesha petitioners ingaba phoselani imizimba yabo kwi-phambili a sedan isitulo wobubingeleli obukhulu esemthethweniXa akukho namnye ongomnye ngomhla nelasekuhlaleni belikwazi uncedo, petitioners ingaba utyelele i-ke empire ke ikomkhulu bafune ephakamileyo esemthethweni ngu-uncedo. Petitioners kwiminyaka yakutsha nje ngamanye amaxesha ukukhangela ubulungisa ngokusebenzisa inkqubo esemthethweni okanye wobulali petitioning bureaus. Nangona kunjalo, abo ukuva ukuba ubulungisa sele eluded nabo rhoqo? utyelele Beirut njengenani lokugqibela resort ukuba awuvumelani nesisigqibo abalawuli kwi age-ubudala hlobo. Phantsi nkqubo, National Public Izikhalazo nembambano Iziphakamiso Yolawulo kwaye wobulali bureaus ka-iileta kwaye unxulumano ('petitioning bureaus') ingaba igunyazise ukufumana iileta, ngefowuni, kwaye utyelelo ukusuka abantu okanye amaqela kwi iziphakamiso, izikhalazo, kwaye grievances. Amagosa ke isiqhagamshelanisi imiba ukuya zahlukeneyo amasebe iliso kwinkqubela phambili septemba, oko ingxelo kwi - filing amaqela. Petitioning bureaus ingaba ostensibly konxibelelwano isiqhagamshelanisi phakathi kukarhulumente kunye citizenry, kwaye zithe relied kwi ukusukela ukusekwa kwe-PAPER ngowe.

Petitioners babe begin zabo nzame kuba redress ngomhla nelasekuhlaleni kunye iileta kwaye unxulumano ii-ofisi, apho zibekwe khona kwi-courthouses okanye township-inqanaba urhulumente ii-ofisi.

Ukuba unsatisfied, banako inyanga legunya ukuba yowiso-inqanaba ofisi kwaye, ngomhla ephezulu umphakamo, i-National Public Izikhalazo nembambano Iziphakamiso Yolawulo kwi-Beirut. Inani petitioners kwi-Beirut yedwa sele allegedly ufikelele ngaphezu kwe, abantu, hayi ukubala abo bahlala e wephondo capitals. uphawulo luyafuneka inani abantu usebenzisa petitioning inkqubo sele ukwanda ukusukela ngo, kangangoko ukuba inkqubo wenziwe strained kuba iminyaka. Igosa leenkcukacha-manani abonisa ukuba uxwebhu lwezikhalazo ofisi ngonyaka kuphethwe jikelele ishumi yezigidi inquiries kwaye izikhalazo ezivela petitioners kwi- ukuya. Nangona kunjalo, nangona yalo ihlala ihleli indalo kwaye ezopolitiko inkxaso, inkqubo ayizange ukuba i-ngobuchule ndlela zokusingatha i-izikhalazo baziswa kulo. Yowiso-capitals zithe umtyholwa ka-hiring abantu Beirut ukuba abduct petitioners abathe travelled ukusuka kwiindawo zabo kwaye umkhosi kwabo ukuya emva ekhaya oku kwaziwa njenge 'intercepting. I-apparent injongo ka-interceptors ngu ukunqanda abemi ukusuka appealing kwi-Beirut ngenxa yobulali amagosa ubuso reprisals ukuba abemi ukusuka kwiindawo zabo bafuna redress kwi-eyinkunzi. Amalungelo oluntu organizations kuba umtyholwa Isitshayina abasemagunyeni ka-arbitrarily imprisoning enkulu amanani petitioners kwi-mnyama jails okanye ezinye illicit detention oluntu. Ngo, Amalungelo Oluntu Jonga ekhutshwe ingxelo alleging ukuba enkulu amanani petitioners, kuquka abantwana, ingaba detained kwi-mnyama jails, kwaye ibhalwe phantsi eziliqela allegations ka-torture kwaye mistreatment kulo maziko.